The ideology behind religious practices in the ancient world.
I give so that you may give.
Wouldn’t you say that this still holds true today?
I agree that it does. Most people if not all give with some expectation that they will receive something back. This holds even for religious worship. Why are people worshiping something? Because they expect something in return, not unlike Ancient Romans or Greeks.
This is why these selfish practices must be abandoned. We must give for the sake of giving and NOT expect anything in return. We should be good for the sake of being good and for humanity itself NOT because it will get you somewhere, or something.
As Plato says in the Protagoras, quoting Simonides, we can try to be good, but we can never be good. It is an impossibility. We are human and will have our faults. We can only strive to be the best we are able to be BUT for the sake of being good not ut des.
2079 years ago this day, September 23rd, 63 B.C., Augustus Caesar was born as Octavian, nephew of Julius Caesar. He was the first Imperator of Rome, from 27 B.C. to 14 A.D. This aphorism clearly states his style. He was cautious, but moved forward in a steady and confident manner. He made the arts flourish in Rome by having his longtime friend Maecenas be a patron to many famous individuals whom would not have been famous unless for Augustus: Virgil, Ovid, and Horace, for instance. The works, the Aeneid, the Metamorphoses, or the Odes of Horace have influence history so greatly that it is unimaginable without them. The well-known term Carpe diem is one example from Horace. It would be prudent for anyone to study Augustus, where we also get the month of August from.
The Roman poet Virgil, seated with a sheet of scrolls in his hand, is attended by two Mousai, Kleio the Muse of history with a scroll, and Melpomene the Muse of tragedy with a tragic mask.
Now I know what love is.
September 21st is the day Publius Vergilius Maro, also known as justVergil or Virgil, died in Naples in 19 B.C. I know what love is now because reading his Aeneid or hearing the stories of how he influenced others such as Horace are inspiring and up-lifting.
Get to know Virgil. Read Virgil. I am still waiting for the day when I can finish his works. When you think you don’t have enough to read or are bored, read Virgil, and fall in love again.
Remember, ancient literature can inspire you and remove yourself from the everyday depressions and anxieties. When you see heroes in turmoil and overcoming obstacles, you see yourself being able to do the same in this life. Learn Latin and enjoy the reading twice in addition to learning English better.
In these uncertain political times, we should listen to Socrates:
“Unless philosophers become kings in our states,” I said, “or those we now call kings and potentates genuinely and competently pursue philosophy, and political power and philosophy combine into the same thing, and the many natures of those pursuing exclusively the one or the other are of necessity excluded, there can be no respite from evil in the state, my dear Glaucon, nor, in my view, even in the human race. Until then, this state which we’ve outlined in our discussion can never grow to its full potential, nor see the light of day. But this is what has been making me hesitate for so long, seeing that much will be said that beggars belief. You see it’s difficult to see that anyone, either as an individual or as part of the state, can achieve happiness in any other way.”
Socrates: “Do you not notice how those who are involved with physical education throughout their lives, but have nothing to do with the arts, develop a particular type of mind? Or again, those who do the opposite?”
Glaucon: “What are you talking about?”
“Roughness and hardness as opposed to softness and gentleness,” I said.
“I get it,” he said: “you mean that those who indulge in nothing but physical training end up rougher than necessary, while those who indulge in the arts become softer than is really good for them.”
“There again,” I said, “the spirited part of their nature may produce a roughness, and if rightly nurtured it might be manly, but applied more than is necessary, it would in all likelihood become intractable and recalcitrant.”
“I think so,” he said.
“What then? Wouldn’t a philosopher’s nature have a gentleness in it and, if it were allowed to go too far, wouldn’t it be softer than need be? But if it were nurtured in the right way wouldn’t it be gentle and orderly?”
I don’t think I have to ask whether you think this is true today. It seems fairly obvious.
In order to exercise our minds, we must have a sound body. Even Seneca agreed to this fact. Yet I think today people do not place this into high in their minds. Somehow they think working all the time or reading or studying all the time will somehow make up for the loss in strength or body tone. Most people give up also after they get married. THIS I BELIEVE IS WRONG. Your health is always important even if you met that special someone who is buff or beautiful. But take note, they like you for who you are now and not always for what happens later (let’s be real here).
So take care of yourself, both of you, in mind [Ψυχῇ] and body [σώματι] and live a much happier and fuller life. Don’t let yourself go in either respect. Make it routine and habit to get in shape but always take heed about what was said above; it must be supplemented with literature, philosophy, and learning, etc. I don’t mean going to the opera, reading the newspaper, or seeing a show on broadway. These are contemporary things that usually have no basis in Ancient Greek or Roman thought. They are usually barren and just entertainment. Think about it. Be a life long learner of literature. See The Great Courses.com on the web for this part and read ancient literature.
Ancient Literature or an Education in the Musescan make you better. Read, write, listen to music, learn an instrument, learn another language, and practice philosophy.
Am I wrong?
Above Apollo, god of music, represents the ideal to strive for, a mixture of beauty and mind. But also let us be practical, we all can’t look like Apollo or Aphrodite. The point is to strive for the best while you are able.
but Lawfulness reveals all that is orderly and fitting,
and often places fetters round the unjust.
Solon, Elegies, 4.31
Does this quote from Solon of Athens remind us of our own laws?
Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, –That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.