Festina lente

Festina lente.

Attributed to August Caesar.

 

Make haste slowly.

 

2079 years ago this day, September 23rd, 63 B.C., Augustus Caesar was born as Octavian, nephew of Julius Caesar. He was the first Imperator of Rome, from 27 B.C. to 14 A.D. This aphorism clearly states his style. He was cautious, but moved forward in a steady and confident manner. He made the arts flourish in Rome by having his longtime friend Maecenas be a patron to many famous individuals whom would not have been famous unless for Augustus: Virgil, Ovid, and Horace, for instance. The works, the Aeneid, the Metamorphoses, or the Odes of Horace have influence history so greatly that it is unimaginable without them. The well-known term Carpe diem is one example from Horace. It would be prudent for anyone to study Augustus, where we also get the month of August from.

So make haste slowly and seize the day!

 

primaporta1

 

Nunc scio quid sit amor

Nunc scio quid sit amor

Vergil, The Aeneid, Book VIII, line 43. 

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Virgil flanked by two Muses, Bardo Museum, Tunisia

The Roman poet Virgil, seated with a sheet of scrolls in his hand, is attended by two Mousai, Kleio the Muse of history with a scroll, and Melpomene the Muse of tragedy with a tragic mask.

 

Now I know what love is.

September 21st is the day Publius Vergilius Maro, also known as just Vergil or Virgil, died in Naples in 19 B.C. I know what love is now because reading his Aeneid or hearing the stories of how he influenced others such as Horace are inspiring and up-lifting.

Get to know Virgil. Read Virgil. I am still waiting for the day when I can finish his works. When you think you don’t have enough to read or are bored, read Virgil, and fall in love again.

Remember, ancient literature can inspire you and remove yourself from the everyday depressions and anxieties. When you see heroes in turmoil and overcoming obstacles, you see yourself being able to do the same in this life. Learn Latin and enjoy the reading twice in addition to learning English better.

 

 

 

 

 

When Philosphers become our leaders

In these uncertain political times, we should listen to Socrates:

“Unless philosophers become kings in our states,” I said, “or those we now call kings and potentates genuinely and competently pursue philosophy, and political power and philosophy combine into the same thing, and the many natures of those pursuing exclusively the one or the other are of necessity excluded, there can be no respite from evil in the state, my dear Glaucon, nor, in my view, even in the human race. Until then, this state which we’ve outlined in our discussion can never grow to its full potential, nor see the light of day. But this is what has been making me hesitate for so long, seeing that much will be said that beggars belief. You see it’s difficult to see that anyone, either as an individual or as part of the state, can achieve happiness in any other way.”

 Socrates in The Republic by Plato, 473d, Book V

Ἐὰν μή, ἦν δ’ ἐγώ, ἢ οἱ φιλόσοφοι βασιλεύσωσιν ἐν ταῖς πόλεσιν ἢ οἱ βασιλῆς τε νῦν λεγόμενοι καὶ δυνάσται φιλοσοφήσωσι γνησίως τε καὶ ἱκανῶς, καὶ τοῦτο εἰς ταὐτὸν συμπέσῃ, δύναμίς τε πολιτικὴ καὶ φιλοσοφία, τῶν δὲ νῦν πορευομένων χωρὶς ἐφ’ ἑκάτερον αἱ πολλαὶ φύσεις ἐξ ἀνάγκης ἀποκλεισθῶσιν, οὐκ ἔστι κακῶν παῦλα, ὦ φίλε Γλαύκων, ταῖς πόλεσι, δοκῶ δ’ οὐδὲ τῷ ἀνθρωπίνῳ γένει, οὐδὲ αὕτη ἡ πολιτεία μή ποτε πρότερον φυῇ τε εἰς τὸ δυνατὸν καὶ φῶς ἡλίου ἴδῃ, ἣν νῦν λόγῳ διεληλύθαμεν. ἀλλὰ τοῦτό ἐστιν ὃ ἐμοὶ πάλαι ὄκνον ἐντίθησι λέγειν, ὁρῶντι ὡς πολὺ παρὰ δόξαν ῥηθήσεται· χαλεπὸν γὰρ ἰδεῖν ὅτι οὐκ ἂν ἄλλη τις εὐδαιμονήσειεν οὔτε ἰδίᾳ οὔτε δημοσίᾳ.

Σώκρατης, ΠΟΛΙΤΕΙΑ – Πλάτων473d, βἰβλίον

 

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The Death of Socrates, by David

 

 

Exercise the mind and body

Socrates: “Do you not notice how those who are involved with physical education throughout their lives, but have nothing to do with the arts, develop a particular type of mind? Or again, those who do the opposite?”

Glaucon: “What are you talking about?”

“Roughness and hardness as opposed to softness and gentleness,” I said.

“I get it,” he said: “you mean that those who indulge in nothing but physical training end up rougher than necessary, while those who indulge in the arts become softer than is really good for them.”

“There again,” I said, “the spirited part of their nature may produce a roughness, and if rightly nurtured it might be manly, but applied more than is necessary, it would in all likelihood become intractable and recalcitrant.”

“I think so,” he said.

“What then? Wouldn’t a philosopher’s nature have a gentleness in it and, if it were allowed to go too far, wouldn’t it be softer than need be? But if it were nurtured in the right way wouldn’t it be gentle and orderly?”

“That is right.”

           Plato, The Republic, Book III, 410c

 

Σωκράτης: Οὐκ ἐννοεῖς, εἶπον, ὡς διατίθενται αὐτὴν τὴν διάνοιαν οἳ ἂν γυμναστικῇ μὲν διὰ βίου ὁμιλήσωσιν, μουσικῆς δὲ μὴ ἅψωνται; ἢ αὖ ὅσοι ἂν τοὐναντίον διατεθῶσιν;

Τίνος δέ, ἦ δ’ ὅς, πέρι λέγεις;

Ἀγριότητός τε καὶ σκληρότητος, καὶ αὖ μαλακίας τε καὶ ἡμερότητος, ἦν δ’ ἐγώ—

Ἔγωγε, ἔφη· ὅτι οἱ μὲν γυμναστικῇ ἀκράτῳ χρησάμενοι ἀγριώτεροι τοῦ δέοντος ἀποβαίνουσιν, οἱ δὲ μουσικῇ μαλακώτεροι αὖ γίγνονται ἢ ὡς κάλλιον αὐτοῖς.

Καὶ μήν, ἦν δ’ ἐγώ, τό γε ἄγριον τὸ θυμοειδὲς ἂν τῆς φύσεως παρέχοιτο, καὶ ὀρθῶς μὲν τραφὲν ἀνδρεῖον ἂν εἴη, μᾶλλον δ’ ἐπιταθὲν τοῦ δέοντος σκληρόν τε καὶ χαλεπὸν γίγνοιτ’ ἄν, ὡς τὸ εἰκός.

Δοκεῖ μοι, ἔφη.

Τί δέ; τὸ ἥμερον οὐχ ἡ φιλόσοφος ἂν ἔχοι φύσις, καὶ μᾶλλον μὲν ἀνεθέντος αὐτοῦ μαλακώτερον εἴη τοῦ δέοντος, καλῶς δὲ τραφέντος ἥμερόν τε καὶ κόσμιον;

Ἔστι ταῦτα.

ΠΛΑΤΩΝ, ΠΟΛΙΤΕΙΑ

 

I don’t think I have to ask whether you think this is true today. It seems fairly obvious.

In order to exercise our minds, we must have a sound body. Even Seneca agreed to this fact. Yet I think today people do not place this into high in their minds. Somehow they think working all the time or reading or studying all the time will somehow make up for the loss in strength or body tone. Most people give up also after they get married. THIS I BELIEVE IS WRONG. Your health is always important even if you met that special someone who is buff or beautiful. But take note, they like you for who you are now and not always for what happens later (let’s be real here).

So take care of yourself, both of you, in mind [Ψυχῇ] and body [σώματι] and live a much happier and fuller life. Don’t let yourself go in either respect. Make it routine and habit to get in shape but always take heed about what was said above; it must be supplemented with literature, philosophy, and learning, etc. I don’t mean going to the opera, reading the newspaper, or seeing a show on broadway.  These are  contemporary things that usually have no basis in Ancient Greek or Roman thought. They are usually barren and just entertainment. Think about it. Be a life long learner of literature. See The Great Courses.com on the web for this part and read ancient literature.

Ancient Literature or an Education in the Muses can make you better. Read, write, listen to music, learn an instrument, learn another language, and practice philosophy.

Am I wrong?

 

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Apollo Kitharoidos

 

Above Apollo, god of music, represents the ideal to strive for, a mixture of beauty and mind. But also let us be practical, we all can’t look like Apollo or Aphrodite. The point is to strive for the best while you are able.

When times are tough…

‘ὦ φίλοι, οὐ γάρ πω καταδυσόμεθ᾿ ἀχνύμενοί περ

εἰς Ἀίδαο δόμους, πρὶν μόρσιμον ἦμαρ ἐπέλθῃ·

ἀλλ᾿ ἄγετ᾿, ὄφρ᾿ ἐν νηὶ θοῇ βρῶσίς τε πόσις τε,

μνησόμεθα βρώμης, μηδὲ τρυχώμεθα λιμῷ.’

                                                     ΟΔΥΣΣΕΙΑ Κ 174

 

‘Friends, not yet shall we go down to the house of Hades, despite our sorrows,

before the day of fate comes upon us.

No, come, while there is still food and drink in our swift ship,

let us take thought of food, and not waste away from hunger.’

                                                                                      Odyssey, Book X, 174

 

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Odysseus by his ship

 

Let us live…enjoy your life.

 

Bad Government

ὡς κακὰ πλεῖστα πόλει Δυσνομίη παρέχει,

Εὐνομίη δ᾿ εὔκοσμα καὶ ἄρτια πάντ᾿ ἀποφαίνει,

καὶ θαμὰ τοῖς ἀδίκοις ἀμφιτίθησι πέδας·

Σόλων, τὰ ἐλεγεῖα, 4.31

 

Lawlessness brings the city countless ills,

but Lawfulness reveals all that is orderly and fitting,

and often places fetters round the unjust.

Solon, Elegies, 4.31

 

Solon

Does this quote from Solon of Athens remind us of our own laws?

 

Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, –That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.

Have we come to this time again?

 

 

 

 

 

What doesn’t love perceive?

Quid non sentit Amor?

           Ovid, Metamorphoses, Liber IV.68 -Pyramus et Thisbe

 

What does love not perceive?

               Ovid, Metamorphoses, Book IV.68 -Pyramus and Thisbe

 

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Roman Mosaic (From Cyprus) – Pyramus and Thisbe (written in Greek here)                        ΠΥΡΑΜΟΣ ΚΑΙ ΘΙΣΒΗ

Remember your first love? It seemed love could make you understand anything, be invincible, and know everything. Is this only an allusion?

Ovid has plenty to say about love: Daphne and Apollo, Pyramus and Thisbe, Baucis and Philomen, King Midas, Echo and Narcissus, for better or for worse. Examine your own life. Is it similar to Ovid’s metamorphoses? Does your love change over time? Has it been better? Worse? For the right person? For the wrong?

Reading ancient literature can help you see this and help you evaluate your own life. You can see that others have had it far worse than you if you are not feeling well. Or if you are nostalgic, you can see how passionate love really never lasts. Lastly, you can relive your own life and remember with delight.

Lastly, as Sappho says below, it is what we love that is most beautiful, so love something – love ancient literature and learn to perceive what the ancients have to teach us.